Head of the Moscow Department of education Isaac Kalina – about the availability of quality education and the role of form teachers.
Night security checks and subtle psychological work of the form teachers with teenagers help to strengthen the security of schools, said in an interview for "Izvestia" head of the Moscow City Department of Education Isaac Kalina. He also said when the bars will be removed from the windows in educational institutions, how the unification of schools has affected the quality of children's training and whether there is a need for the creation of unified textbooks.
— This year there have been five attacks on schools in the country, and now the issue of security is particularly acute. What measures will be taken in the metropolis in the near future?
In November 2010, when I was appointed (Head of the Moscow City Department of Education.
— "Izvestia"), there were many urgent tasks. However, I started by driving around the schools late in the evening and checking on security. Then we were forced to fire many guards, to increase the responsibility of the Directors.
In the first place is security, oddly enough, requires not only money but also attention. In order to straighten things out with the security structures and make them work, it is necessary to conduct regular inspections. We have a monitoring group that regularly goes and checks our security structures. Video system in schools helps a lot.
Speaking about safety, I would like to stress again: the head of an educational organization should be a good teacher and also a comprehensively competent manager — he must ensure any security in the institution for all participants of the educational process, including fire, financial, and informational. The main thing is to systematically, constantly, without waiting for some cases, working on tasks that are always relevant. Therefore, for example, in Moscow, with the huge support of Ministry of Internal Affairs, our colleagues from the Department of Regional Security, the National Guard, a system of protection has been created, which, by the way, people from other cities began to study.
But the creation of a security system aimed at protecting against external threats is half the battle. But protecting yourself is a much more complicated thing. We see this according to serious incidents in schools that have occurred recently.
It seems to me that one of the reasons for such incidents is that the attention to the form of teacher’s work was weakened. But this is the most important element of the school and students’ safety. No one knows and feels children like a form teacher. He is the most competent psychologist for them, who feels their mood. This is a very important job at school, and so we have developed a system to support form teachers and try to increase the payment for this part of the teacher's work.
- After the tragedy in Kemerovo, much attention is paid to the problem of fire safety. Almost all schools have window bars on the ground floors. Will the Department dismantle them?
— In a certain period, 10-15 years ago, when there were no established systems of the building protection, swing bars seemed the only way to ensure the safety of valuables and fire safety at the same time. And it was allowed by all norms.
But in recent years, after we managed to build in Moscow a much more reliable system of protection of buildings and material values in them, the number of bars on the windows greatly diminished, even hinged. Monitoring of the appropriateness of their preservation, or rather, the rare cases when it is impossible to get rid of them, continues. And I think that in the near future they will remain only in areas where this is an exceptional, extremely needed and where it does not affect fire safety.
— One of the largest transformations in recent years has been the reform of the school management system. Your critics said that weak schools would not get better from combining with strong, and the level of education in stronger ones, on the contrary, will fall...
— I am very attentive to criticism. I am particularly happy when we are criticized both from the left and right and from behind (from the past). So we're going in the right direction. Forward. And no one criticizes us from the front. Maybe there's just no one ahead.
The biggest fear, let's say, of the active part of Moscow citizens was connected with the Olympiads. They said: there are 20-30 Moscow schools that provide children with very good results, if you interfere, the whole process will change. I don't want to discuss the emotions of that period. Here are the numbers: in 2010, among Moscow schoolchildren, there were only 278 winners of the All Russian School Olympiad, and they were the representatives of 74 schools-this is less than 5% of the total.
And in 2017 we had 817 winners and prize-winners of the Olympiad. And it is not even important that they became almost three times more. It is important that the number of schools that raised the winners increased four times.
Today, a huge number of schools in Moscow, whose students have never even reached the finals of the All-Russian School Olympiad, we can say, just took away the monopoly on winning the All-Russian School Olympiad from those dozen educational institutions that owned it in 2010. Over the past three years, 321 schools have prepared their winner or medalist of the Olympiad.
— Apart from the Olympiads, what else has the reform changed?
— I wouldn’t call it reform, but the modernization of the management mechanism, nothing more. What did it lead to in 2018, we can look from three perspectives - families, the city, and the teachers ' corps.
The family is interested in the competitiveness of a school graduate when entering universities. When there was no exam, a graduate of the Moscow school was preparing for mathematics with a teacher of a particular University and successfully passed the exam in this University. And when the Russian State Exam started, it turned out that the strongest guys from the regions are better prepared than many from Moscow. And the share of the latter among students of the capital's universities fell sharply by 2010.
Now we can see how a number of Moscow students receiving the highest scores (the number of gaining 250 points or more in three subjects, the exam has grown five times — from 1.5 thousand in 2010 to 7.6 million in 2017); increased, how has the number of applicants to the budget places in leading universities changed. And finally, Moscow citizens came to occupy more seats in the high-tech universities — MIPT, MUCTR. D. Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, etc.
The city also benefited from the transformation. It has a very important task - to prevent the stratification of society. Including the availability of quality education. Before such education has been given by a few dozen schools in Moscow: in April, the parents practically fought for places in line, the atmosphere around them was stressful. And today this situation is impossible because almost all schools in Moscow provide quality education and none of them is an educational obstacle for the child.
If we talk about teachers, it should be noted that the average salary of a teacher since 2010 has grown 2.3 times and in 2017 amounted to about 80 thousand rubles per month. Today, there is a minimum threshold below which a Moscow school cannot pay for the full-time work of a teacher. If he has a full load, his salary this year can not be less than 68 thousand rubles.
— The President, in his address to the Federal Assembly spoke about the need to create a new system of training management personnel in education. How does Moscow solve this problem, and can your experience be useful to other regions?
— Any teacher of a city school may take independent computer testing. In case of success, he comes to the certification Commission, which includes the strongest school principals, representatives of the media, public organizations, trade unions. If a candidate gets more than 80% of the vote, he is included in the personnel reserve, for which we have a school of the future Director. Now more than 400 people are included in it. The best reach the top of the list. And when there is a vacancy, we send 2-3 candidates for consideration to the inter-district Board of School Directors.
It is impossible to get to the headmaster in any other way. Certification of him and all his deputies is a formulaic procedure, it does not depend on the Department but depends on a variety of important city and citizens measured management results, which are reflected in the Director’s certificate. Therefore, first of all, certification is a powerful motivator for the entire management team of the school to ensure that students achieve high educational results.
In addition, it must be admitted that the Director 30-40 years ago was not a Director in fact. He was a "senior teacher", did not manage finances, did not accept employees, did not take such responsibility for the results of students (but could easily write himself an indulgence "for low results” due to insufficient provision of resources").
The school 30-40 years ago actually had only one function — educational (pedagogical). And educational institutions have always fought for financial and economic independence. Today's school is an organization with a whole range of responsibilities: not only with pedagogical responsibility but also with a huge legal, financial, economic, information responsibility.
And today, the Director can no longer" write himself an indulgence "for the low results of his students because of insufficient funding", since in the current system of equal access funding turning a resource into a result is his responsibility.
Therefore, I am proud of the Director's corps formed today in Moscow. The vast majority of the 600 principals of Moscow schools are great professionals. Now they began to develop due to the suggestion of the Mayor- Strategy of education of Moscow.
Colleagues from other regions look at our experience with respect. They understand that this is very good: Moscow administrators are not afraid to go out into the shared platform. But at the same time, they usually say that it is impossible for them...
— Is the certification of teachers difficult to organize?
— On the contrary, Moscow has the calmest certification system for teachers. If his students have decent results of the Russian State Exam, Basic State Exam, and independent monitoring, he only needs to write an application with a request to certify him. Moscow is the only region where the teacher does not need to do anything specifically for certification — the whole procedure takes place without his participation, and the teacher works with children.
— Is the system of early professional orientation of schoolchildren developing in the capital? What are the challenges, taking into consideration, rapid changes in the labor market?
— Moscow is actively developing a project to integrate all levels of education — pre-professional classes. Engineering, medical, cadet, and academic. Formally, they begin with the 10th grade, but the preparation for them is still in the main school in the clubs of additional education. And after graduating from the ninth grade, children understand in which direction they want to move on and choose the appropriate direction.
Next year we will launch another important project — "Mathematical vertical". Schools in Moscow will open 300 mathematical classes, whose students in grades 7-9 will study mathematics and other natural science subjects at a very serious level. After the graduation, to continue their education in 10-11 specialized successfully, pre-professional, academic, IT classes, and then successfully study in leading Moscow universities in the city's demanded specialties.
Previously, such projects were simply impossible. The problem with small, highly specialized schools is that once there, the student is doomed to go through life along this corridor. But I believe that school is a time of trial and even forgivable mistakes (adult life does not forgive our mistakes of choice). And "preprof" everyone needs it in order to, at least, early to be wrong. Or decide early.
And most importantly, after the "pre-professional" man gets to College not accidentally, but determined by priorities. For example, he goes to study to be a doctor not because he was easily given chemistry and biology at school, but because at school, he “dived” into the profession of medicine.
— Now there is a lot of discussion about the need for a single textbook. Do you need it, in your opinion?
I repeatedly spoke 10-15 years ago in accordance with my official duties at that time (in 2007-2010 Isaac Kalina was Deputy Minister of Education and Science of the Russian Federation. - "Izvestia") about textbooks I still have the same opinion. Do not talk about a single textbook as a unique one. A more accurate formulation is a basic textbook.
But many (specialists. - "Izvestia"), to which I refer myself, speak about three types of textbooks: the mass basic, about being tested in a certain circle of schools and about being tested in an even narrower circle of schools, that is, experimental. And before becoming a basic textbook, it must successfully pass the first two stages: experimental and approbation. Naturally, there is still a need for separate textbooks for correctional schools to study the subject at an advanced level.
But different mass basic textbooks are hardly appropriate. So far this basic textbook can and should be included (especially in electronic form) the possibility of multi-level progress of the student. Such textbooks were even in Soviet times. Although then, there were no today's electronic capabilities. Now it's even easier.